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English grammar (index).

Explanations, rules and exercises.

Adjectives and adverbs.

Adjectives are words that define a noun:

the blue pen, the tall tree, a sunny day, an interesting exercise.

Demonstrative adjectives: this, that, these, those.
Possessive adjectives: my, your, his, her, its, our, their.

Adverbs are words that define a verb or another adjective:

he drove slowly, I am feeling well, a very small dog, quite nice.

Frequency adverbs: never, sometimes, always, etc.

Also see this section for the comparatives and superlatives of adjectives and adverbs: big - bigger; slowly - more slowly.

Too, also, as well.



Articles are words like a and an (indefinite articles) and the (definite article):

a book, an apple,
the table.

Sometimes words like some and any are considered to be articles which precede countable and uncountable nouns.


Conditional sentences (if).

The conditional refers to sentences with an if clause, eg:

If you heat ice, it melts.
If I go out tonight, I'll go to the cinema.
If I won the lottery, I'd buy a boat.
If I had studied more, I would have passed my English exam.

Wish and if only.

A similar structure is used for the expressions I wish... and If only...

I wish I had fair hair.

If only I had brought my coat.

(For use of the auxiliary verb (would), see modal auxiliary verbs...)



Infinitives are the basic forms of a verb: run, to run or running (the ing form sometimes called a gerund).


Modal auxiliaries verbs.

Modal auxiliary verbs are: can, could, may, might, will, would, shall, should, ought to, need, must.

Going to, used to + infinitive for past and have to are also included in this section.



Nouns are words that represent objects, names of people and places and concepts.

Nouns are divided into two main groups: common nouns and proper nouns. Common nouns are written with an initial small letter: book, car, sky, happiness, love. Proper nouns represent names of peoples, places, institutions, etc. They are written with an initial capital letter in English: Mary, Spain, Seville, Monday, January, Parliament.

This section also looks at how to make the plural of nouns.


Passive voice.

The passive is when the complement of an active phrase is placed at the beginning of the sentence. The original subject comes at the end of the sentence or is omitted:

The thieves stole the valuable painting (active).
The valuable painting was stolen [by the thieves] (passive).



Help with use of prepositions with examples in sentences.



Pronouns are words used instead of a noun or noun phrase.

Two common groups of pronouns to study are the personal pronouns (I, you, he, she, etc.) and the possessive pronouns (mine, yours, his, hers, etc.).

Also, there are relative pronouns: which, who, that, where, when, why, what.

For the pronouns: something, anything, nothing, etc. see some and any.



Quantifiers are words that express quantity: some, any, no, much, many, little, few (fewer and less), all, none, enough etc.

Also in this section are the words: something, anything, nothing, etc.


Questions and answer forms.

Questions using auxiliary verbs: do, does, did; simple inversion, subject - verbo (auxiliary) with: to be, to have and modal auxiliary verbs in the interrogative.

Question tags:

You speak good English, don't you?

Short answers:

"Have you ever been to South America?"
"Yes, I have" / "No, I haven't".


Reported Speech.

Reported speech is the grammatical structure we use when we say what somebody has said earlier (direct speech):

Mary: "Are you going shopping, John?" (direct speech).
She asked John if he was going shopping (reported speech).



Structure and use of the tenses and aspects:

present simple, continuous;
present perfect simple, continuous;
past simple, continuous;
past perfect simple, continuous;
going to;

Also see this section for details about for and since and yet and already.


The English verb.

A study of how the English verb works: contractions, syntax or questions and negatives, imperatives, verb conjugations for regular and irregular verbs.

Phrasal verbs.


Other grammar and language points.

There is, there are and all other variations.

Saxon genitive (Mary's new car).

The numbers from 0 to a trillion.

The alphabet

Make and do

Say and tell

Used to + infinitive for past

Collocations (words that go together)

Word pairs eg. (fast and quick)





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